Have you noticed your dog doing that tell-tale butt scoot across your living room carpet? Or maybe you found something squirming in his poop. If so, your dog has worms. Yuck!
Worms are not uncommon in dogs. They have a proclivity for eating gross things that they find on the ground, in the garbage, or may even eat “waste” from wild animals. This leaves plenty of chances for opportunistic parasites to sneak into your dog’s gut.
Worms can be a nuisance and can cause some pretty unpleasant problems, but dog worms are easier to treat and prevent than you might think. In this article, we’ll help you learn to identify symptoms of worms in dogs, effectively treat them, and most importantly, prevent worms from coming back.
Types of Worms in Dogs
What kind of worms can dogs get?
There are several different types of worms in dogs that you should be aware of, but the most common types you’ll see in your dog’s gut are roundworm eggs and hookworm larvae.
Worms are especially common in nursing puppies and strays due to their lack of personal hygiene, but any dog can get worms at any life stage if they come in contact with contaminated debris.
Here are some of the most common dog worms to be on the lookout for in dogs:
Roundworms are the most common worms in adult dogs. These worms are ingested by your dog, usually as hookworm eggs or larvae, through contaminated soil, animal feces, or from ingesting feces from infected wild animals. Additionally, roundworms can be passed from mother to puppy in the womb or through their mother's milk. How to treat dog's intestinal wall in dogs?
Once ingested, dogs get roundworms in the digestive tract and the worms complete their lifecycle. The lifecycle of roundworms is complicated but effective. Look like most pests, they have three stages: eggs, larvae, and adult roundworms or hookworms.
Eggs are ingested by your dog who then becomes infected, and the eggs hatch into infective larvae within 2-4 weeks. From there they work their way through the intestinal wall and into the liver, then onto the lungs. Once they reach the lungs, the roundworm larvae can work their way to your dog’s trachea and are swallowed. Once back in the small intestine, they mature into adult hookworms, lay eggs, and start the cycle over again.
This aptly named parasite is shaped like a hook about the size of a penny and has multiple sets of teeth that allow them to latch onto the walls of your dog’s small intestine to feed on your dog’s blood.
The life cycle of hookworms is similar to roundworm infection but typically a little faster, as the larvae can reach their infectious stage in about a week. The biggest difference between these two common intestinal parasites, besides their food source, is that hookworms can also penetrate the skin to infect your pet. Eeek!
Adult whipworms in dogs, though less common, are another type of intestinal parasite that can be found in adult dogs. They are ingested as eggs and develop in the intestinal tract like other worms, but these guys don’t travel outside of the dog's intestines as round and hookworms do.
Additionally, hookworm infections have a longer developmental period, about 3 months. Whipworms in dogs are usually not diagnosed in young puppies under 6 months of age.
All three intestinal worms above are shed in egg form in your dog feces, which means soil contamination is common in places where dogs or other animals deposit their waste. Dog parks, fields, and even your backyard could be the most likely environment for spreading round, hook, and whipworm eggs.
Another type of worm that can infect your dogs is a tapeworm. Tapeworms can’t just be ingested to infect your dog, unlike other intestinal worms. They are passed through a third-party pest, like dog fleas or mites.
Tapeworm eggs are also different in that they have self-sufficient segmented bodies, each able to survive and reproduce independently. As the tapeworm eggs grow, the mature segments of the worm infestation are gradually shed, making their way to your dog’s feces.
Tapeworms get much bigger than other common types of intestinal worms. They can grow from 4 up to 28 inches long in length, though the parasite is usually treated well before it gets to this size.
The most deadly worm on our list is heartworm. These parasites attach to both your dog’s heart and lungs, reproducing and growing until permanent damage is done to the organ. Heartworm, like tapeworm, is spread through an intermediary pest, in this case, mosquitoes, but instead of being ingested by the pest, the larvae travel through your dog’s bloodstream.
Left untreated, heartworm disease is fatal, so if you live in an area of high risk, like Ontario, talk to your vet about different options for preventing heartworm infestations.
Parasites in Dogs
All worms are parasites, but not all parasites are certain types of worms. Some parasites in dogs are much smaller but can also be much more of a nuisance. Single-celled parasites can quietly invade your dog’s systems and lead to some unpleasant consequences.
These parasites are easily spread through water and soil that has been contaminated soil by fecal matter. The most common places for these parasites to thrive are in parks, ponds, and forests where wild animals or other dogs make a… uh… deposits.
The most common parasites that can affect dogs are coccidia and giardia. Both parasites typically cause diarrhea and other digestive issues.
Parasites are particularly dangerous for puppies and older or immune-compromised as they can’t fight infection as effectively.
Keep reading to learn more about common worms in adult dogs and how to get rid of parasites in dogs.
How Do Dogs Get Worms?
Worms are part of nature, and that’s most likely where your pooch will run into these pests. Worms live by spreading through a live host, so wild animals are common carriers of worms. They are shed through animal cat feces and can end up in the soil.
Every time you take your dog out for a walk, it could potentially come in contact with parasites. If your dog likes to sniff out dead animals, hunt live mice or birds, or eat…. leftovers from other animals, then he is at risk of getting worms.
Can dogs get worms from other dogs? Yes, they can! If one of your pets has types of worms, it’s common for the others to get them too. A litter of puppies, for example, tends to live in very close quarters and have access to each other's waste.
Other pests can spread worms too. Fleas and mosquitos are both known to carry some species of worms, like heartworm and tapeworms, so be mindful of bugs that like to take a bite out of your pooch.
Make sure you are protecting your pet from intrusive pests with an appropriate and safe flea larvae and tick treatment, like Bayer Advantage II.
Signs of Worms in Dogs
How can you tell if your dog has worms? Unfortunately, dog worms aren’t the easiest things to diagnose at home. The signs of dog worms are often subtle at first, but if you know what to look for, you can treat them before they cause too much discomfort.
Unlike other pests that leave visible signs of activity on your dog’s skin, types of worms burrow in your dog’s digestive tract or other organs, so you can’t see them unless they make their way out of your dog’s body. This means they will make their way out of one end or the other…
Let’s take a look at how you can see if your dog has worms:
Worms in Dogs Poop
The number one way of identifying worms in dogs is through their stool. Depending on the type of worm, you may see small worms present in your dog’s poop. This doesn’t happen for every type of worm, though.
Roundworms and hookworms can sometimes be found in dog's stool samples, and tapeworms shed fully autonomous segments of the body as they grow. Tapeworm segments in dog's poop typically look like grains of rice, while roundworms are a little larger.
Note that you won’t see that evidence in their stool sample for many types of dog worms, so don’t count on this as the only method of diagnosing your pet.
Worm Eggs in Dog Poop
Most worms release their eggs into the digestive tract, and they will end up in your dog’s poop. Don’t count on spotting them, though. The eggs are too small, but they can be seen under a microscope. This means you can bring a dog's stool sample to the vet to confirm a worm diagnosis.
Worms in Dogs Vomit
Another way to see visible signs of worm activity in your dog is in their vomit. Many varieties of dog worms travel through your dog’s bloodstream during their larval stage and make their way to your dog’s trachea so they can be swallowed to finish their life cycle.
This often ends in the worms being either coughed up or puked up. Worms in a dog's vomit may be extremely unpleasant, but at least you can confirm your diagnosis and begin treatment immediately.
Symptoms of Worms in Dogs
Physically seeing the worms infesting your dog is only one way of diagnosing your dog. Many dogs who get worms can show health symptoms as a result of their squirmy intruders. Though early worm infestation often doesn’t have common symptoms, there are some symptoms you can keep a naked eye out for:
- Bloody in Stool
- Butt Scooting
Butt scooting is the symptom most commonly thought to be a tell-tale sign of worms, but that’s actually not true. Worms can cause irritation that leads to butt scooting, but it’s far from the most common symptom.
More often than not, butt scooting is a sign of an anal gland issue, not worms. Talk to your vet about your dog’s anal gland health problems.
Can Worms Kill a Dog?
What happens if you don’t treat your dog's worms in a timely fashion? Can it seriously hurt them or even kill them? Worms in dogs may initially show little to no symptoms, but as they develop, they start to do more and more damage.
If left untreated, worms can start to damage your dog’s organs, leave them malnourished, and lead to serious injury and even death.
Some worms are more deadly than others. Heartworm, for example, rarely shows common symptoms until severe and sometimes irreversible damage is done. This is why regular deworming and vet checks are the best way to keep your pooch parasite-free and healthy.
How Do You Get Rid of Worms in Dogs?
Learning how to cure the intestinal tract in dogs is something all pet parents should know. A yearly deworming treatment for dogs is recommended to act preventatively, but having a dewormer on hand is going to be helpful if you happen to catch any symptoms of worms in dogs.
What does deworming a dog mean? It’s pretty straightforward - to get rid of worms, but a good dewormer has to get rid of worms at all life stages. Larvae and adults are easily susceptible to deworming medication, but the eggs will survive.
This is why deworming treatments often need to be administered twice to allow eggs to hatch before the second treatment. Talk to your vet about the best deworming options for your dog, or check out some of these natural deworming options.
To keep your dog safe, you need to know how to kill worms in dogs quickly and effectively. Your vet can recommend dog-safe deworming medications to handle active infestations.
How to Get Rid of Intestinal Parasites in Dogs Naturally
Some of the most effective ways to kill dog worms are also some of the harshest options for your dog. While dewormers are generally considered safe, some of you may be looking for more natural options to treat your dog’s squirmy intruders.
Look like most supplements, natural alternatives are typically effective for most dogs, but that doesn’t mean they are guaranteed to work for every dog. Additionally, natural options often don’t work as quickly, especially if you don’t follow the recommended instructions or continue the treatment for long enough, you may find the dog worms make an unpleasant comeback.
Diatomaceous Earth for Parasites in Dogs
Well known for its pest control properties, diatomaceous earth works best internally. The small, sharp particles are harmless for your pooch but are small enough to pierce the dog worms, causing them to dehydrate and die off.
It’s not the fastest method of deworming your dog, but it is one of the safest. Like most dewormers, the treatment should be done twice, with a seven-day break in between to allow eggs to hatch.
This is one of the most popular preventative dewormers, as it can be done often throughout the year without any negative effects.
Learn more about how you can use Diatomaceous Earth to keep your pet pest-free in What is Diatomaceous Earth for Dogs?
Coconut Oil for Worms in Dogs
Coconut oil contains lauric acid, which is a natural anti-parasitic worm. Feeding coconut oil regularly can be a useful preventative for many types of dog adult worms and other parasites, including giardia.
While coconut oil does have its benefits, too much of a good thing can still be bad. Coconut oil is high in calories, so you should always feed coconut oil responsibly. The standard recommendation is about ½ tsp of coconut oil per 10 lbs of body weight loss.
Learn more about the pros and cons of coconut oil in Benefits of Coconut Oil for Dogs.
Side Effects of Deworming a Dog
Some dewormers can cause temporary side effects. Some dogs are lucky and have no issues, while others can have some minor digestive issues due to the deworming process.
Effects are typically short-lived and mild. They should clear up on their own by the time the treatment is completed. If the side effects last longer than a week, you should speak with your vet.
Preventing Worms in Dogs
Like with most pet health issues, prevention is always the best medicine. Regular deworming can prevent worms from populating and causing issues for your pet before they start.
Worms can be anywhere in your dog’s environment, and you can’t always ignore them. That doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try, though.
Worms and other parasites spread through fecal matter, so if your dog loves to sniff out poop from wild animals or even himself, he’s likely exposed to worm eggs and larvae quite frequently.
Be aware of the “things” your dog finds on your walks and trips to the dog park and any wild animal they come in contact with. This is another reason to keep your yard free of poop and other debris.
Additionally, worms that are spread through flea dirt or mosquitos can be avoided if you use appropriate flea medications like Bayer Advantix ii to make your dog an unpleasant environment for pests to latch onto.
How Often Do You Have to Deworm a Dog
Preventatively deworming your dog is a good way to keep worms away, but how often do you have to deworm your dog? This will depend on the type of dewormer you use and how frequently your dog is exposed to worms.
Monthly deworming treatments are recommended for warmer seasons when your dog will spend the most time outdoors and will have the most exposure to worm eggs. Dogs can be dewormed two to four times per year during colder months when your dog will spend less time outside.
Dewormers won’t hurt your dog if they don’t have worms, so using a dewormer preventatively is a common practice.
The idea of worms crawling around in your dog’s system is pretty unpleasant to consider, and the longer the worms are allowed to thrive, the more damage they can do. If you aren’t sure, talk to your vet. Your vet can take the dog's stool samples and confirm the worm diagnosis and help you choose the most effective treatment for your unique dog.
Worms will probably happen at some point in your pet’s life. Your dog has ample opportunity to catch a case of worms, even in his own backyard. You can’t keep your dog inside forever, so accept that worms happen and learn how to identify and treat them properly.
How do you protect your dog from worms? Share your tips and success stories with us in the comments below!